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Fırat Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Tıp Dergisi
2016, Cilt 30, Sayı 3, Sayfa(lar) 135-137
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Median Arkuat Ligaman Bası Sendromu: Olgu Sunumu
Latif ÜSTÜNEL1, İbrahim Murat ÖZGÜLER2, Mustafa GİRGİN3
1Elazığ Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi, Kalp Damar Cerrahisi Kliniği, Elazığ, TÜRKİYE
2Fırat Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Kalp Damar Cerrahisi Anabilim Dalı, Elazığ, TÜRKİYE
3Fırat Üniversitesi, Tıp Fakültesi, Genel Cerrahi Anabilim Dalı, Elazığ, TÜRKİYE
Anahtar Kelimeler: Median arkuat ligaman bası, Çölyak, vasküler hasar
Özet
Çölyak arter kompresyon sendromu ilk olarak 1965 yılında tanımlanmıştır. Dumbar cerrahi olarak tedavi edilmiş ilk seriyi sunmuştur. Bu sendromla ilgili farklı hipotezler geliştirilmiş olup; bunların ilki çölyak arterin anormal bir şekilde proksimalden çıkması, diğeride anatomik olarak normal olan median arkuat ligaman tarafından basıya uğruyor olmasıdır. Vücut kitle indeksi 1,63 olan son bir yılda 6 kilo kaybı görülen postprandial abdominal ağrı şikayetleri ile bulantı ve kusma atakları olan 36 yaşında kadın hasta sunuldu. Bu bulgular nedeniyle BT angiografi uygulandı. BT sonuçları Dunbar’s sendromu tanısını doğrular nitelikteydi. Laparoskopik MAL divizyonu Genel Cerrahi kliniği tarafından bu hastaya uygulandı. Ameliyat kardiyovasküler cerrahi uzmanı ile birlikte gerçekleştirildi. Hasta postoperatif 8. saatte extübe edildi ve oral beslenme başlandı. Herhangi bir klinik komplikasyon görülmemesi üzerine postoperatif 3. günde taburcu edildi. Postoperatif 9. günkü takibinde kontrol BT anjiyografi uygulandı. Postoperatif ve preoperatif BT anjiografi sonuçları çölyak trunk ve dallarında anlamlı kalibrasyon artışı olduğunu gösterdi. Multislice BT anjiografi MAL sendromu için 3 boyutlu görüntüleme imkanı sunduğundan tanısında uygulanmalıdır. Tanı sonrası en iyi sonuçlar ve postoperatif iyileşme laparoskopik cerrahi için tecrübesi olan kliniklerde çölyak arter etrafındaki dokunun ve MAL’ın kesilmesi ile sağlanabilmektedir. Operasyonda kardiyovasküler cerrahın bulunmasının olası vasküler yaralanmalara müdahalede faydalı olacağı kanaatindeyiz.
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    Celiac artery compression syndrome was first described in 19651. Dunbar introduced the first surgically treated serial2. Several hypotheses were developed about this syndrome and the first of them suggested that the origin of celiac artery were located abnormally in the proximal, therefore it was compressed by an anatomically normal median arcuate ligament. Another hypothesis suggests that an exceedingly long median arcuate ligament compresses an abnormally located celiac artery. The blood steal hypothesis suggests that large collateral vessels acquire a greater percentage of total blood flow therefore depriving smaller vessels of the flow they require3. The last hypothesis stems on a neurogenic cause. This may be caused by wide range of variation regarding the location, morphology, and neural interconnections of the plexus4. Reports in the literature have shown that this plexus, when fibrotic, can restrict blood flow to the celiac artery5-6. The pathology is more common in young women with low BMI, with a clinical history of chronic postprandial abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, epigastric bruit and weight loss. Diagnosis of this syndrome can be performed by angiogram, computed tomogram scan, MRI and doppler ultrasonography7. Computed tomography (CT) angiography allows visualization not only of the compressed celiac artery but also the underlying median arcuate ligament and adherent tissue using 3D imaging.
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    A 36-year old, female patient with a body mass index of 1.63 complained of 6-kg weight loss in a year was presented to General Surgery Clinics of Fırat University Hospital with the complaints of post-prandial abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. The pain was predominantly localized to the middle-upper quadrant; there was no evidence of a pathology involving organs in the overall workups. Doppler ultrasonography showed a reduction in the blood flow of celiac artery for more than 300 cm/s, especially in expiration. There was also evidence of an increase of the systolic-peak in the superior mesenteric artery (200 cm/s). These datas were consistent with a significant stenosis. In the light of these datas, CT angiography was performed. CT results confirmed the diagnosis of Dunbar's syndrome (Figure 1a–b). The patient was discussed in a commitee meeting organized with Cardiovascular Surgery and was offered laparoscopic MAL division in the light of these datas.


    Büyütmek İçin Tıklayın
    Figure 1: (a) Significantly narrowed celiac artery orifice and loss of calibration distally at axial CT angiography (white arrow). (b) The compression of median arcuate ligament (arrowheads) to the celiac artery (long arrow) at sagittally reconstructed image. (Ao: Aorta)

    General anesthesia was administered. A mini incision below umbilicus was made and abdomen was insufflated by veress needle. By the help of camera scope and standard tools, stomach was liberated at the level of right hiatus crus. Stomach was retracted to gain better posterior exposure. Aorta was explored through the crusas of hiatus. It was exposed until celiac trunk. Fibrous attachments over the celiac trunk were opened with blunt and sharp incisions. The operation was performed by a general surgeon and a cardiovascular surgeon. After bleeding control the fascia and skin were closed. No complication occured during the operation.

    The patient was ambulated in the 8. postoperative hour and started oral feeding. The patient was discharged on postoperative 3rd day without any complication. Control CT angiography was performed at the 9th day follow up visit. Comparison of preoperative and postoperative CT angiography results revealed a significant calibration increase in the celiac trunk and it’s branches (Figure 2a–b). The patient seemed to be relieved of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting at the postoperative 1 week clinical follow up.


    Büyütmek İçin Tıklayın
    Figure 2: Corrected compression of the celiac artery orifice (white arrows) and elevated calibration distally at postoperative CT angiography. (a) Axially, (b) sagittally reconstructed image.

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    Median arcuate ligament syndrome can be treated with endovascular surgery, open or laparoscopic surgery of median arcuate ligament liberation and vascular surgery7. In a study, provided vascular reparation by performing bypass between aorta and celiac artery with dacron graft or by patching saphenous vein on celiac artery7. The most commonly accepted treatment method is open or laparoscopical liberation of median arcuate ligament compressing celiac trunk and dividing surrounding lymphatic and nerve tissue8. In this case fibers of median arcuate ligament which compressed celiac trunk were laparoscopically cut and liberated.

    After the diagnosis of median arcuate ligament syndrome, patients with mild symptoms may be treated with vasodilator agents. Luminal dilatation via percutaneous route is another treatment method. In general, percutane transluminal angioplasty provides short time relief of symptoms however surgery is the actual treatment of this syndrome. When these 3 methods were analyzed, smyptoms were disappeared in 53 % and 79 % of the patients7-9.

    According to datas, post operative recurrence rate was 12.5 % and symptomatic relief has been succeeded in all cases. Reseborough et al. determined the recurrence rate as 27% and symptomatic relief rate as 95% in a case series of 15 patients11. Similarly, our patient was symptom free on the 9. postoperative day and preoperative complaints of the patient totally disappeared.

    Anatomic location of celiac artery is between 11. Thoracic vertebrae and 1. lumbar vertebrae3. Loukas et al. underlined the variability of celiac trunk's origin based on diaphragmatic crura morphology12. General observations show that celiac artery is exposed to greater pressure of median arcuate ligament when it originates above the 11. thoracic vertebrae. More proximal localisation of celiac artery is observed more commonly in females than in males; consequently median arcuate ligament syndrome is more commonly seen in females. In this patient, no anatomic abnormality of celiac artery origin could be detected in CT angiography images.

    Six anatomical and morphologic variations of aortic and esophageal hiatus are described. The most common type (Type 1, 45%) comprises an esophageal hiatus formed by muscular contributions arising solely from the right crus. In Type 2 (20%) the esophageal hiatus is formed by muscular contributions from the right and left crura. In Type 3 (15%), the right and left muscular contributions arise from the right crus with an additional band from the left crus. In Type 4 (10%) the right and left muscular contributions arise from the right crus, with two additional (anterior and posterior) bands arising from the left crus. Type 5 (5%) arises solely from the left crus. In Type 6 (5%) the right and left contributions originate from the left crus with two additional bands, one from the right crus and one from the left crus. Our patient has been categorized as Type 1 in a meeting held with radiologists.

    As a result; MALcompression sydrome should be considered when a young, middleaged, thin women complains of nausia, vomiting and postprandial epigastric pain aggravated by expiration and having the history of weight loss in a short time. Multislice CT angiography should be performed when establishing diagnosis due to the advantages of 3D imaging. After the diagnosis, best results and short postoperative process can be achieved in experienced laparoscopic surgery centers by cutting median arcuate ligament and removing tissue surrounding the celiac artery. We believe that the presense of a cardiovascular surgeon in the operation may be useful for repairing possible vascular injuries.

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    1) Harjola PT. A rare obstruction of the coeliac artery: Report of a case. Annaleschirurgiae et gynaecologiae Fenniae 1963; 52: 547-550.

    2) Dunbar JD, Molnar W, Beman FF, Marable SA. Compression of the celiac trunkand abdominal angina: preliminary report of 15 cases. American Journal ofRoentgenology 1965; 95: 731-744.

    3) Watson WC, Sadikali F. Celiac axis compression: Experience with 20 patients anda critical appraisal of the syndrome. Annals of Internal Medicine 1977; 86: 278-284.

    4) Bech FR. Celiac artery compression syndrome. Surgical Clinics of North America1997; 77-(2).

    5) Rob C. Stenosis and thrombosis of the celiac and mesenteric arteries. AmericanJournal of Surgery 1967; 114: 363-367.

    6) Gutnik LM. Celiac artery compression syndrome. American Journal of Medicine1984; 76: 334-336.

    7) Grotemeyer D, Duran M, Iskandar F, et al. Medianarcuate ligament syndrome: Vascular surgical therapy and follow-up of 18 patients. Langenbeck’s Archives of Surgery 2009; 394: 1085-1092

    8) Cienfuegos J, Rotellar F, Valentí V, et al. Theceliac axis compression syndrome (CACS): Critical review in the laparoscopicera. Revista espanola de enfermedades digestivas 2010; 102: 193-201

    9) Jaik NP, Stawicki SP, Weger NS, Lukaszczyk JJ. Celiac artery compression syndrome: Successful utilization of robotic-assisted laparoscopic approach. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis 2007; 16: 93-96.

    10) Reilly LM, Ammar AD, Stoney RJ, Ehrenfeld WK. Late results following operative repair for celiac artery compression syndrome. J Vasc Surg 1985; 2: 79-91.

    11) Tulloch AW, Jimenez JC, Lawrence PF, et al. Laparoscopic versus open celiac ganglionectomy in patients with median arcu-ate ligament syndrome. Journal of Vascular Surgery 2010; 52: 128-139.

    12) Loukas M, Pinyard J, Vaid S, et al. Clinical anatomy of celiac artery com-pression syndrome: A review. Clinical Anatomy 2007; 20: 612-617.

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